Epidemic Situation

Year: Week:

NATIONAL WEEKLY INFLUENZA BULLETIN OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

week 1 of 2023 (02.01.23 - 08.01.23)

Summary

Influenza and ARI incidence data. Influenza and other ARI activity decrease of influenza and other ARI activity in Russia in comparison with previous week. The nationwide ILI and ARI morbidity level (53.0 per 10 000 of population) was lower than national baseline (70.0) by 24.3%.

Etiology of ILI & ARI. Among 4147 investigation patients in 40 cities 1246 (30.0%) respiratory samples were positive for influenza, including 917 cases of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in 32 cities, 4 cases of influenza A(H3N2) in 2 cities, 139 cases of influenza A unsubtyped in 7 cities and 186 cases of influenza B in 25 cities.

No influenza viruses were isolated on MDCK cell culture. Since the beginning of the season, 286 viruses A(H1N1)pdm09, 5 viruses A(H3N2) and 29 viruses B have been isolated.

Antigenic characterization. Since the beginning of the season, 89 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 have been antigenically characterized by the NICs, including: Moscow (37) and Saint-Petersburg (52), 2 influenza A(H3N2) in Saint-Petersburg and 18 influenza B, including: Moscow (5) and Saint-Petersburg (13). All viruses A(H1N1)pdm09 were antigenically similar to reference strain A/Victoria/2570/2019 (H1N1)pdm09. All A(H3N2) strains were similar to the reference virus A/Darwin/9/2021. 12 influenza B viruses were antigenically similar to reference strain В/Austria/1359417/2021 and 1 influenza B virus reacted with the reference virus antiserum to a 1:8 homologous titer.

ARVI detections. The overall proportion of respiratory samples tested positive for other ARVI (PIV, ADV, RSV, RhV, CoV, MPV, BoV) was estimated in total as 9.4% (PCR).

In sentinel surveillance system clinical samples from 21 SARI patients were investigated by rRT-PCR for influenza, among them 2 (9.5%) cases of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 were detected. Among 10 SARI patients one case of ARVI recognized. Among 10 SARI patients no cases positive for coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 recocognized.

Clinical samples from 13 ILI/ARI patients were investigated for influenza by rRT-PCR, among them 2 (15.4%) cases of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09  were detected. Among 8 ILI/ARI samples one case of ARVI recognized. No of 8 ILI/ARI patients were positive for coronavirus SARS-CoV-2.

COVID-19. Totally 21 841 644 cases and 394 262 deaths associated with COVID-19 were registered in Russia including 4 675 cases and 48 deaths in last 24 hours (on 12:00 of 12.01.2023). According to the data obtained by NIC in Saint-Petersburg totally 5 772 clinical samples were PCR investigated in last week. Among them coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 detected in 294 (5.1%) cases.

Influenza and ARI morbidity data

Fig. 1. Influenza and ARVI morbidity in 61 cities under surveillance in Russia, seasons 2021/22 and 2022/23
Rates per 10 000 populationFig. 1. Influenza and ARVI morbidity in 61 cities under surveillance in Russia, seasons 2021/22 and 2022/23

Weeks

  • Morbidity 2022/23Morbidity 2022/23
  • Morbidity 2021/22Morbidity 2021/22
  • MEM baseline 2022/23MEM baseline 2022/23

Epidemiological data showed decrease of influenza and other ARI activity in Russia in comparison with previous week. The nationwide ILI and ARI morbidity level (53.0 per 10 000 of population) was lower than national baseline (70.0) by 24.3%.

Fig. 2. Comparative data on incidence rate of clinically diagnosed influenza, seasons 2021/22 and 2022/23
Rates per 10 000 populationFig. 2. Comparative data on incidence rate of clinically diagnosed influenza, seasons 2021/22 and 2022/23

Weeks

  • Season 2022/23Season 2022/23
  • Season 2021/22Season 2021/22
  • MEM baselineMEM baseline

Incidence rate of clinically diagnosed influenza decreased comparing to previous week and amounted to 0.75 per 10 000 of population, it was higer than pre-epidemic MEM baseline (0.060).

Fig. 3. Comparison of hospitalization rate with clinical diagnosis of influenza, seasons 2021/22 and 2022/23
Rates per 10 000 populationFig. 3. Comparison of hospitalization rate with clinical diagnosis of influenza, seasons 2021/22 and 2022/23

Weeks

  • Season 2022/23Season 2022/23
  • Season 2021/22Season 2021/22
  • MEM baselineMEM baseline

Hospitalization rate of clinically diagnosed influenza decreased comparing to previous week and amounted to 0.40 per 10 000 of population, it was higer than pre-epidemic MEM baseline (0.040).

Influenza and ARVI laboratory testing results

Cumulative results of influenza laboratory diagnosis by rRT-PCR were submitted by 40 RBLs and two WHO NICs. According to these data as a result of 4147 patients investigation 1246 (30.0%) respiratory samples were positive for influenza, including 917 cases of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in 32 cities, 4 cases of influenza A(H3N2) in 2 cities, 139 cases of influenza A unsubtyped in 7 cities and 186 cases of influenza B in 25 cities.

No influenza viruses were isolated on MDCK cell culture. Since the beginning of the season 388 viruses A(H1N1)pdm09, 11 viruses A(H3N2) and 41 viruses B have been isolated.

Antigenic characterization. Since the beginning of the season, 89 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 have been antigenically characterized by the NICs, including: Moscow (37) and Saint-Petersburg (52), 2 influenza A(H3N2) in Saint-Petersburg and 18 influenza B, including: Moscow (5) and Saint-Petersburg (13). All viruses A(H1N1)pdm09 were antigenically similar to reference strain A/Victoria/2570/2019 (H1N1)pdm09. All A(H3N2) strains were similar to the reference virus A/Darwin/9/2021. 12 influenza B viruses were antigenically similar to reference strain В/Austria/1359417/2021 and 1 influenza B virus reacted with the reference virus antiserum to a 1:8 homologous titer.

Fig. 4. Geographic distribution of RT-PCR detected influenza viruses in cities under surveillance in Russia, week 1 of 2023
Fig. 4. Geographic distribution of RT-PCR detected influenza viruses in cities under surveillance in Russia, week 1 of 2023
PCR results
  • No dataNo data
  • No viruses detectedNo viruses detected
  • H1pdm09H1pdm09
  • H3H3
  • H3+H1pdm09H3+H1pdm09
  • BB
  • B+H1pdm09B+H1pdm09
  • B+H3B+H3
  • B+H3+H1pdm09B+H3+H1pdm09
  • A (not subt.)A (not subt.)
  • A (not subt.)+H1pdm09A (not subt.)+H1pdm09
  • A (not subt.)+H3A (not subt.)+H3
  • A (not subt.)+H3+H1pdm09A (not subt.)+H3+H1pdm09
  • A (not subt.)+BA (not subt.)+B
  • A (not subt.)+B+H1pdm09A (not subt.)+B+H1pdm09
  • A (not subt.)+B+H3A (not subt.)+B+H3
  • A (not subt.)+B+H3+H1pdm09A (not subt.)+B+H3+H1pdm09
Fig. 5. Monitoring of influenza viruses detection by RT-PCR in Russia, season 2022/23
Number of positive casesFig. 5. Monitoring of influenza viruses detection by RT-PCR in Russia, season 2022/23% positive

Weeks

  • H1pdm09H1pdm09
  • H3H3
  • BB
  • A (not subt.)A (not subt.)
  • % positive% positive
Fig. 6. Monitoring of ARVI detection by RT-PCR in Russia, season 2022/23
Number of positive casesFig. 6. Monitoring of ARVI detection by RT-PCR in Russia, season 2022/23

Weeks

  • PIVPIV
  • ADVADV
  • RSVRSV
  • RhVRhV
  • CoVCoV
  • MPVMPV
  • BoVBoV

ARVI detections. The overall proportion of respiratory samples tested positive for other ARVI (PIV, ADV, RSV, RhV, CoV, MPV, BoV) estimated as 9.4% of investigated samples by PCR.

Fig. 7. Monitoring of influenza viruses isolation in Russia, season 2022/23
Number of positive casesFig. 7. Monitoring of influenza viruses isolation in Russia, season 2022/23% positive

Weeks

  • H1pdm09H1pdm09
  • H3H3
  • BB
  • % positive% positive

Table 1. Results of influenza and other ARVI detection by RT-PCR in Russia, week 1 of 2023

  Number of  specimens / number of positive cases  % positive
Influenza
Number of specimens tested for influenza 4211 -
Influenza A (not subt.) 139 3,3%
Influenza A(H1)pdm09 918 21,8% 
Influenza A(H3) 4 0,09% 
Influenza B 187 4,4% 
All influenza 1248 29,6%
Other ARVI
Number of specimens tested for ARVI 3105  -
PIV 23 0,7%
ADV 55 1,8%
RSV 74 2,4%
RhV 36 1,2%
CoV 37 1,2%
MPV 44 1,4%
BoV 20 0,6%
All ARVI 289 9,3%
SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19)
Number of specimens tested for SARS-CoV-2 5836 -
SARS-CoV-2 294 5,0%
Fig. 8. Results of PCR detections of SARS-CoV-2 in Russia
Fig. 8. Results of PCR detections of SARS-CoV-2 in Russia
% positive
  • No dataNo data
  • less then 10%less then 10%
  • 10-20%10-20%
  • 20-30%20-30%
  • 30-40%30-40%
  • 40-50%40-50%
  • 50% and more50% and more

COVID-19. Totally 21 841 644 cases and 394 262 deaths associated with COVID-19 were registered in Russia including 4 675 cases and 48 deaths in last 24 hours (on 12:00 of 12.01.2023). According to the data obtained by NIC in Saint-Petersburg totally 5 772 clinical samples were PCR investigated in last week. Among them coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 detected in 294 (5.1%) cases.

Table 2. Results of influenza viruses isolation in Russia, week 1 of 2023

  Number of specimens / number of viruses  % isolated viruses
Number of specimens 0 -
Influenza A(H1)pdm09 0 % 
Influenza A(H3) 0 % 
Influenza B 0 % 
All influenza 0 %

Sentinel influenza surveillance

Clinical samples from 21 SARI patients were investigated by rRT-PCR for influenza, among them 2 (9.5%) cases of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 were detected. Among 10 SARI patients one case of ARVI recognized. Among 10 SARI patients no cases positive for coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 recocognized.

Clinical samples from 13 ILI/ARI patients were investigated for influenza by rRT-PCR, among them 2 (15.4%) cases of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09  were detected. Among 8 ILI/ARI samples one case of ARVI recognized. No of 8 ILI/ARI patients were positive for coronavirus SARS-CoV-2.

Fig. 9. Monitoring of influenza viruses detection by RT-PCR among SARI patients in sentinel hospitals, season 2022/23
Number of positive casesFig. 9.  Monitoring of influenza viruses detection by RT-PCR among SARI patients in sentinel hospitals, season 2022/23% positive

Weeks

  • H1pdm09H1pdm09
  • H3H3
  • BB
  • A (not subt.)A (not subt.)
  • % positive% positive
Fig. 10. Monitoring of influenza viruses detection by RT-PCR among ILI/ARI patients in sentinel polyclinics, season 2022/23
Number of positive casesFig. 10.  Monitoring of influenza viruses detection by RT-PCR among ILI/ARI patients in sentinel polyclinics, season 2022/23% positive

Weeks

  • H1pdm09H1pdm09
  • H3H3
  • BB
  • A (not subt.)A (not subt.)
  • % positive% positive
Fig. 11. Monitoring of ARVI detection by RT-PCR among SARI patients in sentinel hospitals, season 2022/23
Number of positive casesFig. 11.  Monitoring of ARVI detection by RT-PCR among SARI patients in sentinel hospitals, season 2022/23

Weeks

  • PIVPIV
  • ADVADV
  • RSVRSV
  • RhVRhV
  • CoVCoV
  • MPVMPV
  • BoVBoV
Fig. 12. Monitoring of ARVI detection by RT-PCR among ILI/ARI patients in sentinel polyclinics, season 2022/23
Number of positive casesFig. 12.  Monitoring of ARVI detection by RT-PCR among ILI/ARI patients in sentinel polyclinics, season 2022/23

Weeks

  • PIVPIV
  • ADVADV
  • RSVRSV
  • RhVRhV
  • CoVCoV
  • MPVMPV
  • BoVBoV
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